Developing Property through Joint Venture

Urbanization has accelerated migration of people to the nearby cities in search of jobs and other means of livelihood. This increased influx of population to the cities has in turn caused the paucity of residential accommoda¬tion. The employees prefer to have accommodation near to their job centers to avoid wastage of time in commuting, resulting in vertical growth of city instead of lateral growth. Vertical growth saves lot of land and can accommodate a number of families in a small space. But, vertical development of land requires heavy investment which in turn has led to joint venture.
Joint Venture:
Joint venture is joining of hands. The words “Joint Venture” is described in the dictionary as “a business activity by two or more people or companies working together”.
As stated above, vertical development of land comprising number of flats requires lot of money, manpower, expertise, experience, which an individual cannot undertake. Many a time an individual may own some land, but may not have funds to fully exploit it. Similarly a builder developer who has a resource may need some land to employ his resource profitably. Thus, the owner and developer join hands to develop the land.
In order to avoid disputes, misunder¬standings in working, both the parties reduce the terms and condi¬tions into writing. This is called Joint Venture Agreement.
Unlike construction of an independent house, the group housing or construction of apart¬ments is more complicated, requires approval from various agencies like water supply board, sanitary department, power supply board and Airport Authorities, The project requires to be approved by banks for finance. Joint venture agreements clearly stipulate the duties and responsibilities of each of the parties.
In order to avoid spending huge amounts for procurement of property, the developers venture into joint development activity with land owners through joint venture agreements, develop the property and hand over certain number of flats to the land owner. The number of flats/apartments given to the land owner depends on the prevailing market value of land in that area at the time of project commencement.
Joint Development agreements:
The developer or builder enters into an agreement with the owner of the land known as Development agreement or Joint Development Agreement or Joint Venture Agreement. An immovable property for development may be either vacant land or land with structures thereon.
A developer or builder enters into an agreement with the owner for purchase and development of the land. The development agreement contains obligations and rights of land owners and builder, like obtaining statutory permissions, ratio of sharing the developed property between owner and developer, process of finding prospective purchasers and funding the project, time duration of comple¬tion and penalties for violation.
What is contained in the J V agreement?
The agreement contains the particulars like the commitment of the promoter to construct it as per the approved plan and specifications as approved by the local authority; possession date, price to be paid by the purchaser and the intervals at which the installments are to be paid specifying stage of construction; precise nature of the body to be constituted of the persons who would take the flats; details regard-ing the common areas and facilities specifying the percentage of undivided interest in the common areas and facilities appertaining to the apartment agreed to be sold; a statement of the use for which the apartment is intended. Copies of the title certificate issued and a copy of the approved plan and specifications, a list of fixtures and amenities including provisions for lifts to be provided for the flat to be sold should be attached to the agreement.
A promoter, while he is in possession and when he collects from persons who have taken over flats or are to take over flats sums for payment of out goings, has to pay all out goings until he transfers the property. The outgoings would include ground rent, municipal and other local taxes, taxes on income, water charges, electricity charges, revenue assessment and interest on any mortgage or other encum¬brances, if any.
One should also ensure that the area of the apartment has been mentioned in the agreement. It is also mandatory for the developer/promoter to convey the land in favour of the society/association of flat owners /condominium /Company within a stipulated time.
The development agreement must be in writing and registration of this agreement is not compulsory. If the developer meets the above requirements, he is well protected and can start construction work. But in case the developer commits any breach of the contract, the defence under Sec. 53 A cannot be availed.
Apart from equities, the developer would have a right against a subsequent transferee of the property with notice of the developer’s right or a gratuitous transferee of the property under Sec. 40 of the TP Act but not against the transferee for consideration and without notice of the rights of the developer against the property.
After examination of the property of the land owner, the developer offers to him his offer for development of the property. This offer basically consists of the percentage of the built up area which shall be offered to owner towards cost of the land and the amount of security deposit that will be paid. This security deposit is a refundable advance which has to be refunded back to builder on successful completion of the project.
The percentage of area offered to the owner is arrived at after taking into account several factors such as cost of the land, cost of construction, escalation in cost of construction, cost of obtaining approvals for the building, marketing and administra¬tive expenses and most importantly the selling price of apartments in that area.
If the offer is attractive, the land owner will give his acceptance and hand over a copy of the title docu¬ments to enable the builder to get the same verified by his Advocate.
If the builder’s Advocate approves the title, a draft copy of the Joint Development agreement laying down the terms and conditions of the development is given to the landowner for his approval who generally get it vetted by his Advocate.
If the draft of the Joint Development agreement is found to be okay, the same is prepared and prescribed stamp duty is paid. This agreement is signed by the Builder and landowner and the builder pays the first portion of the refundable advance to the landowner.
Along with the Joint Development Agreement, the landowner also gives a Power of Attorney to the Builder to apply for various approvals required for construction and also to sell the portion of the area coming to the Builder’s share.
All the procedures and formali¬ties and costs for approvals are taken care of by the BUILDER.
The Builder then gets the plan prepared by an Architect, taking into account the requirements of the landowner. Once the plan is ready and approved by the landowner, the same is submitted for approval of the Government authorities.
After the plans are submitted and approved, the builder takes possession of the land from the owner. At this stage, the balance portion of the refundable advance is paid to the landowner.
After taking possession of the land, the builder proceeds to demol¬ish the old building if any and get the site ready for commencement of work.
On receipt of the approval, the builder commences the construction and marketing of the project.
As and when the apartments falling to the builder’s share are sold, the proceeds are received by the builder in stages and the builder will register the apartments in favour of the buyers.
Out of the apartments coming to the landowner’s share, they may like to retain some apartments and sell the balance. The landowner can decide to sell his apartments initially or sell the same when the building is 50% over or when it is nearing completion or after completion. Based on the requirement, the builder will sell the landowners apartments and pass on the proceeds to the landowner as and when the same is received from the buyers. When the landowners’ flats are sold and a payment is received, the landowner will register these apartments in favour of the buyers.
On completion of the project, the apartments being retained by the landowner are handed over to him and the advance which was given by the builder at the time of commence¬ment of the project is refunded back.
The builder and the land owner will facilitate formation of a Flat Owner Association and hand over the title documents to the Association.
Rights and obligations of a developer:
As per Sec. 54 of the Transfer of Property Act, an agreement for sale does not create any interest in the property in favour of the purchaser though the consideration is paid partly or fully unless and until a deed of transfer by way of sale or lease is
executed in favour of the purchaser. Many Joint Venture agreements are supported by Power of Attorney executed by the owner in favour of the developer for the development works and enters into an agreement to sell and a sale deed to the extent of developer’s share after completion of the total building.
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Final touches to walls

With today’s umpteen home decorating options, wall decorating has become a unique and exciting alternative home décor furnishings. If one thinks beyond basic painting, walls are the perfect place to display pretty much anything they desire.
Walls are often treated as a nuisance and challenge in the home interior designing to be dealt with. For those creative and daring enough to attempt it, walls offer a world of design options. “Decorating walls with the things that are close to your heart gives your space warmth and personality. One can make the walls more colourful and creative.”
“For those wishing to do something different with their walls other than painting or hanging pictures, there are plenty of trend setting options that are available today. Walls, however, can be used to display some of the most fascinating and unique décor.”
Large wall-expanses in homes can be embellished with wall art, wall mirrors, wall clocks, metal wall art, collage, frames, wall hangings, wall lights, wall masks, wall murals, painting, wall paper, wall tiles, tapestries, quilts and quilted wall hangings, decorative wall shelf and much more. If one is looking for a fine art detail in their home décor, wall tapestries are an unsurpassed decorating solution that gives a personal and elegant touch to the interiors.
Lighting, textures and other wall art and décor can be employed to make a familiar room feel like new. LED lights can also be affixed to walls to create the right ambience whether it’s the bedroom or the living room. One can beautify their walls with art prints on canvas, original paintings or tile murals.
“Wall murals are a great way to illustrate any wall. Tile murals are the latest in home wall-décor and custom hand-painted wall murals offer a creative way to add personality to walls. Whether they are scenic or whimsical, murals add drama and interest to any room in your home. Wall murals add an instant focal point to a room that is bright and delightful to look. That apart, walls murals are ideal for kid’s décor in children bedrooms.”
Black and white photos framed with same colour look fantastic in every décor setting. One could also display their favorite items in shadow boxes or hang shelves to display antiques, decorative objects, trophies, stuffed animals, old-fashioned clocks, etc. This will help to transform a room into a lavish space.
Hand-painted wall art panels and hand crafted metal wall décor are one of the perfect solutions to the room with no view. There are styles to suit any decorating theme and at the same time functional.
Last but not the least, clocks can decorate the wall and are a fashion statement. Wooden wall panels are a compliment to them. One can have an elegant and attractive contemporary home décor with decorative wall clocks.
So, find the perfect accessories to dress up the walls in your home and complete your home’s décor.
Artwork on Walls
Apart from fine art, paintings are always appreciated as decorative items for a home. Paintings are said to tell us more about the owner’s personality. For home paintings which contain natural colours and look real are apt.
Mostly, people take a trip around the city, area or an exhibition and on an impulse, pick up a painting or art work of their homes. Even in choosing a painting for your rooms, however, there are certain things to keep in mind. There are various factors that one needs to look into before picking up a frame of art – the furniture, size of the wall, view size, lighting of the room, among other criteria, Landscape are ideal for room that has classical furniture. “If you fit a large painting on a large wall, and view size (the distance of viewing) is not enough, then it can hamper the look of the whole room,” proper lighting is important because “Bad lighting can spoil the beauty of a painting.”
Art lovers should not get carried away by the cost and name of the artist. Money can never give the original value of an art piece. It is always priceless. Only the artist knows the real value. Sometimes good work can be found at very low costs. Only one should have a good taste and some time to spend appreciating art.
“Keeping in mind the house and its size, colour of the walls and also the choice of the client, paintings are to be suggested. Most prefer paintings of forest, trees and water falls in living room and different creative paintings – sometimes modern art—in the bedroom.” Sometimes people ask for paintings that have a base of Vastu Shastra and Feng Shui, like a painting of Lord Ganesha. Usually contrast method is used while picking a painting. If the colour of the wall is of a lighter shade, the painting should be darker and for darker walls, obviously, light-coloured paintings look good. This way, the entire look of the room is accentuating, without ignoring the space and at the same time the beauty of the art work is not lost Glass paintings are no more in vogue. The new mantra today is to stay natural.
The advantage in selecting paintings for apartments that are under construction is that there is freedom to select appropriate frames and the place where it fits best, after consulting with the customer. In Bangalore, the demand for works by upcoming artists is growing, which is quite encouraging. People also go in for figurative and abstract concepts, part from landscapes. People also like buying a few accessories that complement the paintings. Silk rosewood and gem stones are other popular styles of paintings. This traditional form of art. So, they are a classic.
There are many myths about the frames that go on the walls of your home. It is said that a painting with dull colours, especially those which represent strokes of pessimism, affects the inmates’ mood. Some people refuse to hang a dark coloured frame or picture in their living rooms, fearing a bad omen – a crisis in your home or relationship or even the call of evil. It is also believed that a painting that shows a river, a water fall or a stream, ensures an easy flow of income in the house. And a serene atmosphere like a picture amidst mountains and the sea side, exalts peace and harmony in your home.
It eventually, however, comes down to what the owner thinks feels, likes and wants. Whatever, the reason, a painting does give your room a new face lift.

Deed of Covenant for Production of Title Deeds.

The transfer of immovable property by way of sales, gift, will, releases etc. presupposes that documents to the title of transferred immovable property are delivered to the transferee on completion of process. This is statutory obligation. Section No. 55(3) of Transfer of Property Act, casts this responsibility on the seller. But the section has a proviso that in case where only a part of the property is sold and the seller retains a part of the property the seller is entitled to retain the original documents, and copies of such documents are delivered to the purchaser.
In case, where the property is transferred to different persons, in different lots, the transferee of greatest portion is entitled to hold the documents of title and others are provided with copies of such documents.
In the circumstances dealt above, the persons holding the documents either the seller or one who hold the greatest portion has some responsibilities. He has to keep the documents in safe custody and in good condition. He has to make available the documents for inspection to other buyers, and also furnish the true copies of such documents; extract from such documents, whenever required.
But the cost has to be met by the buyer who needs such inspection or copies, extracts. Those responsibilities are required to be recorded properly.
The document, which records such obligations of safe keeping the documents; producing them for inspection, providing copies, extracts is called “Deed of covenant for production of documents.”
The deed of transfer like sale, gift, will, and release may contain such a covenant by the vendor in favour of purchaser or a separate deed may also be executed by the vendor in favour of purchaser.
In case of the person holding greatest portion, a separate covenant deed about his obligations becomes necessary. A separate deed in favour of each of other transferee of other portions or a common deed in favour of all other transferees jointly may be executed.
In the deed of transfer of the greatest portion or of highest value an explicit covenant, that, the transferee shall safe keep the documents in good condition, produce for inspection of other transferee and furnish true copies or extract should be included. Similar relevant covenant should also be incorporated in deed of transfer of other transferees.
Generally all the portions of the property are not transferred at the same time, and the above suggested procedure may not be possible. In such cases, the transferor should give a covenant of production of documents in each of the deeds of transfer and it should further provide that if and when the transferor hands over the documents to any other transferee at a later date he would procure a similar condition from the such transferee. Under a covenant of production of document, the original covenantor remains liable indefinitely unless a condition provides that he is no more responsible after he parts with the remaining portion of the property.
Stamp duty: In case the condition is included in the deed transfer itself, no separate stamp duty is payable. If a separate deed is executed, it attracts the stamp duty as that of an agreement depending upon the stamp duty prescribed by the state.
Registration: This deed of covenant does not require the registration, but it is advisable to get it registered.

Immovable Properties

Tips on purchase of immovable property:
A person requiring, selecting and investing money in purchase of an immovable property either for his self-occupation as House or for investment purpose or both, has to look into various aspects involved in the purchase of an immovable property.
· Civic amenities like park, school, police station, temples, community hall, hospitals, auditorium, should be available in that locality.
· Better road facilities will save more time to reach the place of work in time, though the location of the residence is far off.
· Generally, persons prefer to spend more time in their residences for rest, sleep and family interactions after their work. The location for the residential house should be free from air pollution and noise. Good environments including natural light and good ventilation will be an added advantage for health point of view.
· The residential area should not be located on the main roads, high-ways, heavy traffic flow. It should not be near the area of high tension wire. It should be preferably away from the railway line to avoid noise, away from burial ground, graveyard, or burning ghat or cremation centre. Besides, the location should not be in any low lying area to avoid water logging and inundation of water in case of torrential of water in case of torrential rains etc. also, it should be away from the lake, water tank, drainage and sewage water storing areas.
· The land should not be filled up clay soil and not prone to land-sliding. Availability of water supply, power supply, ground water and sanitary line should be ensured.
· Added to that; area inhabited by decent, educated and cultured people would be gifted advantage.
Vaastu Aspects:
Belief in Vaastu concept varies from person to person. Better select an immovable property as per the Vaastu Shastra. This may yield good resale value, if decidedlater. Equally important is the selection of a rectangle or square site and direction wise, better to select North and East, as generally people do so.
Financial Aspects:
In the sky-rocketing real estate price both in urban and suburban areas and mushroom growth of apartment culture in and around Cities, being sold at exorbitant price, nowadays, a person may not afford to purchase a good property at a reasonable rate. It is always advisable to select a property to suit their budget, otherwise they have to face a lot of problems and their income will go to repayment of the principal and the interest only. Nowadays, Bank finance/loan is easily available for long term i.e., 15 to 20 years subject to fulfilling their terms and conditions. Instead of purchasing 30 x 40’ site with Ground + 2 upper floors, a person can purchase 60 ‘ x 40’ site and construct only ground floor with further provisions to construct additional floors suiting to their requirement and budget at later stage.
Instead of purchasing an immovable property in an isolated area, it is better to select it an area having good road facility and public transport system which would be convenient for up and own traveling to work’s spot and back home and also helpful for the school going children. If you purchase a property in an isolated area, it is dangerous to lead life.
Legal Requirements:
Buying a property with complicated title is like ‘paying the money and buying a headache’. Anybody offers a property at a cheaper rate than a market value, you should be very careful. Generally, the Owner of Property with complicated title, either himself or through his Agents/brokers pesters to buy his property at a cheaper rate at short notice. It is not advisable to purchase any property in a hurried manner. It is always better to subject all the documents shown to rigorousscrutiny, verification and seeking Expert’s opinion to ensure marketable title of the immovable property. In the process, proper and reasonable time need to be given for Legal Scrutiny and opinion. Upon such advices by Advocates, further efforts should be made to verify various records in the concerned Government Departments.

Optimum use by dividing larger rooms

An unwieldly large, living space could be aesthetically, innovatively and unobtrusively partitioned for varied uses that individual rooms could have offered.
At times, people are perplexed over what to do with the large room in their house. The spacious facility there should be utilized to a varied and maximum usage. A spontaneous idea emerging out is to put up a temporary partition in the middle, so as to split the room into two. This simple solution with numerous artistic variations and creative diversities, but all with the common accomplishment of putting up a partition will lend the most elegant and contemporary touch to the entire milieu.
An easy way to demarcate spaces in a large room would be to simply make use of the available furniture itself. If a living-cum-dining room is already in existence, the living room furniture could be used to define the living room space – The sofa set could just be placed in such a manner that its back faces the dining room. A storage unit is a very popular method of dividing a large space. A unit that has open spaces and which can be used from both sides will be very ideal. To uplift and enhance lights could be added. Storage units are a very clear way of demarcating space and since they come in different dimensions and one can buy one that is most ideal and suited for the available space.
Since historical times, screens have been used to create private spaces and now-a-days enormous variety of screens are available in stores and suiting every level of budget. Some of the attractive and beautiful options can be selected from hand painted screens made of canvas fabric, silk and jute. These varieties come with added beauty of getting aborned with sequins and embroidery. Another method of creating the notion of partition is by suspending items from the ceiling. Odd items like bells, beads, metal strips and shells could be suspended in a string, which will form an aesthetic curtain.
Some create a division in larger rooms by using or placing unusual objects. A couple were using a four-foot canoe in their living room. This serves two purposes. The curiosity it arouses becomes the interesting topic of conversation with those who converge there and simultaneously it is, effective in its function too. For persons who like plants, placing them inside can create a pleasant, refreshing and bringing-in-nature ambience. Adding a stray collection of pebbles, proper lighting and setting of candles, will certainly transform the somber ambience into a small oasis of greenery quite in the middle of the living room.
Use of glass for forming partition is a modern option. Pebbled partition could be tried where pebbles are placed between two sheets of glass. Even going in for a low wall or ledge and growing plants over that would be an alluring alternative. Glasses could also be used in the form of blocks and stain glass is also good for this purpose. The additional advantage in using glass is that is gives an illusion of space.
If the interior already possesses and reflects ethnic décor then clay blocks or red bricks can be artistically used for separating the room for varied uses. But whatever the method one chooses to create a temporary partition, it should be ensured that one is able to see bits of the other room, rather than blocking it from view completely. This sort of partitions reflecting both transparency and translucency, creates a feeling of space and allows the commingling of different elements of nature into one organic blend.



Sale Deed is also known as conveyance deed. This is the document by which the seller transfers his right to the purchaser, who, in turn, acquires an absolute ownership of the property. This document is executed subsequent to the execution of the sale agreement and after compliance of various terms and conditions detailed in the sale agreement.

Before the execution of the sale deed the title of the seller is to be established beyond doubt. Copies of the documents of title must be scrutinized by an advocate, well versed and experienced in property dealings.

If there is any encumbrance on the property, such encumbrance is to be cleared by the seller at his cost.

All statutory payments like property tax, water and power charges and any other payments due on the property should be cleared before the execution of the Sale Deed. Any previous charges or mortgage should be clear before execution of the Sale Deed.

Clearances, and permissions required to be obtained by the seller should be obtained prior to execution of the sale deed.

Latest encumbrance certificate of the property, subsequent to the date of the sale agreement up to the proximate date of sale deed should be obtained, and such certificate should be of nil encumbrance.

All the persons having interest in the property should be made parties to the deed. Particular attention needs to be paid in case of purchase of properties from a Limited Company, Partnership Firm, Hindu Undivided Family, Trust, Power of Attorney Holder and Minor.

Draft Sale Deed

A draft Sale Deed, containing full details of the parties, advance amount paid, mode of balance amount payable, receipt of the balance amount by the seller, handing over the original documents of the property, handing over the possession of the property, handing over the authorization letter to transfer power and water meters, signing of the application for transfer of khatha, title of the seller of the property, indemnifying the purchaser in case of defect in the title, easement rights, will be prepared by the purchaser’s advocate. Such draft Sale Deed should be captioned as draft Sale Deed and shall be signed by the purchaser’s advocate.

A copy of the draft Sale Deed will be given to the seller for his approval. The seller and his advocate will verify the draft sale deed and approve it, or may suggest suitable deletions, additions or amendments. The purpose is to bring forth the correct intention of the parties to the Sale Deed.

On approval of the draft Sale Deed, the same has to be prepared on a quality or a document paper. In Karnataka it may be prepared on good quality paper like bond paper or green paper and the stamp duty may be paid by way of demand draft or pay order or cash. The exact amount of stamp duty should be ascertained from the Sub Registrar office. Purchaser is liable to pay the Stamp duty as per value stated in the documents or as per the Sub- Registrar office value whichever is higher.


After the Sale Deed is prepared all the parties to the deed shall execute it by affixing full signatures. Each page should be signed by all the sellers. Any overwriting, cancellations, erasures and additions have to be authenticated by full signatures of the parties.

The execution of the Sale Deed requires to be witnessed by two witnesses. The witnesses shall give their full particulars and addresses.

Sale Deed of immovable property of value more than Rupees one hundred needs compulsory registration. The duly executed sale deed should be presented at the jurisdictional sub-registrar office. All the parties, including the confirmation witnesses shall be present at the time of registration and admit the execution. Purchaser also has to be presented for the execution of the documents at the Sub Registrars office. In case the purchaser is not in position to be present before Sub Registrar, he can give Power of Attorney to any of his persons to sign and present the documents on his behalf. In case seller signs the Sale Deed, it is compulsory that through the registered Power of Attorney holder only can represent for him to present the documents before the Sub-Registrar.


In Karnataka, the Sub-Registrars office, take the photos of purchaser, vendors, witness and also their thumb impressions and print the same on the Sale Deed.

The vendors has to produce all the original documents pertaining to the property to the purchaser. If the property is divided into one or more portions, the seller has to give certified copy or Xerox copy of the documents to the purchaser and has to give declaration to that effect. Generally, the larger portion holder should get the original documents.

There is a time limit for presenting the documents for registration. The time limit is four months from the date of execution. Thereafter a grace period of another four months is allowed on payment of penalty. The maximum penalty is ten times of registration charges.

At times, the registering authorities may dispute the stamp duty paid. In such cases, the purchaser has an option of paying the additional stamp duty by way of cash or payorder. The purchaser may contest it in which case the Sub Registrar will do the pending registrations and send it to the Registrar of Under Valuation to arrive at proper Stamp Duty.

Parties have to quote their Income Tax Permanent Account Number in case the transactions are done in cash for the property which values more than Rs 5,00,000. Parties, who have not yet been allotted Permanent Account Number, will have to file Form No.60 or Form No. 61 in case of Agriculturists.

The purchaser’s advocate has to take all precautions while preparing Sale Deed. It is a most important document and decides the fate of the purchaser. The purchaser has to preserve the Sale Deed very safely.

Ventilation at Homes

Though all the five Elements of Nature are essential for the life of all living being on earth, air is without dispute the prime among them. And within the house, we need proper ventilation for a salubrious atmosphere and healthy living. For getting the welcome cool breeze inside the house, it is imperative that the air should be able to flow around the house freely. It is a proven fact that on the windward side the air blows with some force or energy so that it not only enters the house but also absorbs and carries the heat to the outside on the leeward side of the building. To facilitate easy flow of air, we should have lots of open space in the way of its entry and some space on the other side for its easy exit as well. But the availability of more space in an urban context can be just about 10 feet and in a metropolitan city like Bangalore, even 5 feet will ensure quite a bit of natural ventilation.
A big house should mean that we have open space around the house, especially on the windward side. It will be better and beneficial to plan houses in such a way that the open space around the house becomes part of the house, and extend the house outward visually so that we can feel the house getting extended to the open space.
The sensible way to get this done is by taking the outside inside by bringing the open space inside and make it part and parcel of the house. If we build from one end of the site to the other, covering more or less completely, then we are sure to feel cramped and ultimately suffer from lack of light and air. As far as light is concerned, the natural light can be compensated to a certain extent, by artificial lighting, but not the natural ventilation. A fan just churns the same stale air. The air conditioners merely cool the air, recirculating a part of the used and exhaled air to reduce the load on the system.
It is the nature of air to blow from an area of higher pressure to that of lower pressure. On the windward side the air pressure is higher, on the leeward side the pressure is proportionately lower. Therefore to facilitate this we need to keep bigger windows on the windward side and even small windows will do on the leeward side to exhaust the warm and stale air.
Wind will have positive pressure on the south and west during the summer monsoon months and similarly there will be negative air pressure on the north and east during this season. We feel the flow of air only when it passes by our body as a stream. But it flows rather slowly most of the time, even if we do not exactly feel it. The reason for this is the pressure differential between the two sides of a building, either adjacent or opposite sides. Even this slow movement of wind brings many air changes per hour and provide the much needed relief from heat.
Air Circulation
Even when there is absolutely no air movement, or the condition which people normally call a ‘still air ‘ conditioner, there certainly will be air exchanges happening. In this case there will be gaseous movement due to air diffusion, which is nothing but gaseous exchange from a higher level of concentration to lower level. Generally carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, body odour, cigarette smoke etc., which is being generated inside the house will be exchanged to the fresh air from outside, carrying in the much needed oxygen to the inside. This exchange goes on in a passive way and even for this to happen we need sufficiently big windows to the outside.
Trees are always helpful in directing and cooling the breeze into the house. Trees with a large canopy not only cool the house, but also guide the breeze inside the house through the windows, likewise, shrubs and bushes could be strategically planted to guide useful breeze to the inside of the house and filter hot rays of sun.
Facing the Wind:
Nowadays, it is a common occurrence to see the houses being constructed so close to each other that we cannot expect fresh air from our neighbour’s site. One can depend only on the open space that is there around the house to allow fresh air to come inside. For this to happen, we need to keep more open space on the side from where we want the summer cool breeze to enter the house. This can be accomplished by keeping more open space on the south and west. The south side open space is more useful because the sun will be at high angle on this side and it is easy to control the sun by providing minimum projections. Even though we get a good breeze from the west too, because of the low angle of the sun from this direction in the afternoon, it is comparatively difficult to control sunlight penetrating the house.
However, we can keep large projections like portico and pergola covered gardens in the open space on the west and filter the sun light to a maximum possible extent, while allowing easy access to summer freeze.
We have very little control over the open spaces around only site. For this specific reason, it is all the more important to leave sufficient open space around the building within our site since every inch of space cost multiples of hundreds of rupees in urban areas, we have to leave it where it really adds to the quality of living in the house and most importantly, open space has to be left taking into consideration the summer wind directions.