It is very common that many a times the main documents of sale, mortgage, lease are drafted by inexperienced and unqualified people, as a result of which defects creep into the documents. This necessitates the requirements of supplementary documents to remedy the mistakes. Deeds of confirmation, rectification and cancellation are some of the important supplemental deeds. We have already dealt with rectification deed. This write up deals with confirmation deed and cancellation deed.
There are two types of confirmation deeds, one of the types is, where a person confirms and assents to the documents of conveyance executed by another person. This becomes necessary, when a person is not made a party to the main document of conveyance either by oversight or by ignorance or by some other reasons.
Another type is very important. Here the party to a document has made some mistake in signing the main document or has failed to admit the execution before the sub-registrar within the prescribed time, and consequently the sub-registrar has refused to register the document as far as the said party is concerned or in some other respect. It is very common though the parties execute the documents, but fails to turn up at sub-registrars office to admit execution, and the registering authority, refuses to register the document. In order to remedy this defect, a deed of confirmation has to be executed from the concerned party, wherein the confirms the execution of principal deed and further adds that the principal deed is valid and binding on him. He also confirms that he has no right, interest, title to the property transferred which belongs to the purchaser/transferee.
As a precautionary measure a copy of principal deed should be annexed to the deed of confirmation and such copy should also be signed by the party executing the confirmation deed. However, whether such a document cures the defects of the main documents is debatable, but such documents would act as promissory estoppels against the party. This would avoid execution of fresh documents, payment of stamp duty and registration charges.
The word confirmation in strict parlance means approbation or assent to the estate already created, by which confirmation party further strengthens and gives legal validity to such estate so far at it is his powers.
The confirmation may be given in variety of ways (1) by acquiescence (2) by limitation (3) by deeds. Confirmations of acquiescence and by limitations are the outcome of operation of law.
The Indian registration recognizes confirmation deeds. Sec. 17(1) provides any deed confirming any interest in immovable property needs to be registered.
The confirmation deed attracts stamp duty. If the main documents is registered or to be registered the corresponding confirmation deed also requires registration.
Deed of Cancellation:
Section 13 of Specific Relief Act 1963, deals with the cancellation deeds. There may be certain written documents, which by their nature or by operation of law or by some other reasons are void, violable. Such documents if left as they are and outstanding may harm the interest, right, titles privileges of some party. Such person may institute a suit, praying for cancellation of such written documents, and the court in its discretion if thinks it proper may order for Cancellation of such written document.
There may be documents of contract, which are void as they are against Law Public Policy or violable if they are vitiated by fraud coercion or other similar grounds. The parties to the document may also cancel such documents by mutual consent without referring to the court. An agreement for sale, lease, mortgage, license, partition, may be cancelled by the parties with consent of all parties.
But at times, the matter of cancellation of document may not be so simple as some parties may want to take undue advantage, or very mature of document may not make it simple task.
A deed of conveyance, which is duly executed and registered, cannot be cancelled by mere deed of cancellation. The proper course would be to execute a reconveyance deed and get it duly registered. But if of fraud, coercions or incase of any disagreement among the parties, the chances of mutual consent to cancel the agreement are very remote. In such cases, the affected party has to seek the intervention of the court by filing suit as per the provisions of section 13 of Specific Relief Act.
If any of the documents are unregistered, it may be cancelled by consent of all the parties by scoring off or by endorsing it about cancellation. But in both cases, all the parties should sign the document for having cancelled.
Cancellation deed attracts the stamp duty as per section 17 of Indian Stamp Act, that is stamp duty is payable only if it is attested by witness. A cancellation deed, which is not attested, attracts stamp duty as per agreement.
If the main deed needs to be registered. Cancellation deed also needs to be registered.
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